The disproportionate discipline of African-American students has been extensively documented; yet the reasons for those disparities are less well understood. Drawing upon one year of middle-school disciplinary data for an urban school district, we explored three of the most commonly offered hypotheses for disproportionate discipline based on gender, race, and socioeconomic status. Racial and gender disparities in office referrals, suspensions, and expulsions were somewhat more robust than socioeconomic differences. Both racial and gender differences remained when controlling for socioeconomic status. Finally, although evidence emerged that boys engage more frequently in a broad range of disruptive behavior, there were no similar findings for race. Rather, there appeared to be a differential pattern of treatment, originating at the classroom level, wherein African-American students are referred to the office for infractions that are more subjective in interpretation. Implications for teacher training and structural reform are explored.” This was published 12/2002, (It’s been going on forever. The system is taking very few steps to stop it.)The Urban Review
There is a thriving counter-current of transnational African literary life that confounds rather than caters to an international taste for “digestible” fiction.
African literature is the object of immense international interest across both academic and popular registers. Far from the field’s earlier, post-colonial association with marginality, a handful of star “Afropolitan” names are at the forefront of global trade publishing.
The agreement allows students to stay at Mercer County Community College for a third year before transferring to Rutgers-Camden saving them $20,000. Earlier this week Thomas Edison and MCCC also sealed a deal to help the nursing students.
Does your car look and smell so horrible that you’re embarrassed to have friends ride with you? Do you wish you had that new-car smell and shine? Have you considered taking it in for detailing? Chances are that like many of us you practically live in your car, which can get pretty grimy from all th
Robert and Mabel Williams embodied the true American spirit. The fighting spirit that uses guns to battle tyranny and oppression around the world. They sacrificed and suffered as a family so that African Americans could be free. Their work made passive civil disobedience much more palatable to the U.S. government, and inspired such groups as the Deacons for Defense and the Black Panther Party for Self Defense.
While in exile in Cuba, Robert wrote the biographical Negroes with Guns. The book details the abuses and struggles in Monroe and the events that led up to them leaving the U.S.